Ancient DNA analysis of two male skeletons from the Late Neolithic Bell Beaker site of Kromsdorf, Germany showed they belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup R1b. More specifically, one skeleton belonged to R1b (M343) with the testing of R1b1a2 (marker M269) having failed and the other skeleton belonged to R1b1a2. Both were ancestral for SNP U106. No other downstream markers were tested. The find is important because it links the widespread Bell Beaker Phenomenon (hereafter BB) with the most frequent Y-DNA haplogroup in modern Western European males. It is also important as R1b has not appeared in any Neolithic or pre-Neolithic ancient DNA to date.
Based on the radiocarbon (14C) dating of short lived material, the current prevailing view is that BB originated in Iberia (2900 BC cal.), with an almost concurrent appearance in southern France and northern Italy. The spread of BB into Northern and Central Europe seems to have occurred somewhat later (~2500 BC). Vander Linden (2012) questioned the use of 14C dating to find the origins of BB, mainly on the grounds that most dates fall within a very narrow time-frame. He reinforced instead the Dutch Model, which based on typology and burial data, sees BB as an evolution of the Single Grace Culture (Corded Ware) in the lower Rhine. Limited ancient DNA has failed to provide a male genetic link however as Corded Ware skeletons have been found to belong instead to haplogroup R1a1, haplogroup G and possibly haplogroup I.  
Based on the homogeneity of STR variance of the three major subclades of P312 (U152, L21 and DF27), and similar modal values for U106 (65 of 67), both P312 and U106 seem to have had a great period of geographic expansion in a relatively short period of time. A second, albeit less frequent, brother clade to L11 is defined by Y chromosome position 3263086 G>A (GRCh37/hg19 Assembly) (unpublished data). The distribution of this group is primarily restricted to Northern Italy and France and is easily spotted in academic studies by way of its off-modal value of DYS426=13. While BB migrations seem to have impacted some areas such as Bavaria very heavily, other areas such as Northern Iberia and Bohemia show very little variability from the preceding non-BB populations .
Understanding the dynamics of Bell Beaker population movements and how they shaped the distribution of R1b and its phylogeny should warrant Y-DNA testing of ancient skeletal remains at the subclade level.
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