U152+ L2+ FGC10543+ … from Bell Beaker to the Roman Empire

By Richard A. Rocca

FGC10543 within Italy

Y-SNPs FGC10543, FGC10536 and FGC10516 form a subclade below U152’s largest subclade L2. All three were found in FTDNA sample no. N90341 in April 2014, as well as in a single sample from Sardinia (Francalacci et al 2013 and private correspondence with Paolo Francalacci). The subclade was further verified with sample no. B3593 being found to be derived at all three SNPs. The following is a breakdown of samples derived at FGC10543:

North-East FGC10516/FGC10536/FGC10543 > FGC10530 Group:

B3593 Simeone Simonetti de Simon ~1655, Zoppé di Cadoré, Belluno, Veneto, Italy

E8413 Paolo Bonfant b. 1509 Cembra, Trentino, Italy

N65523 Nicola Gronella, b.~1330 Monte di Malo, Vicenza, Veneto, Italy

GRC8U Santo Rossi, b.1730, Orgiano, Vicenza, Italy (based on close STR signature only, DYS385a=11)

230724 Vincenzo Rossi b abt 1700 and d. bef 1800 (based on close STR signature only, DYS385a=11)

Shared off-modal values: DYS442=11, DYS385a=12, DYS458=16, DYS449=27

South-West FGC10516/FGC10536/FGC10543 > FGC10530 > FGC10507/FGC10525/PR5365/18401139(C/T) Group:

N90341 Pietro Rocca, b.1559, Agira, Sicily, Italy

207656 Fedele Fiera NPE, b. 1850, Capua, Caserta, Italy (FGC10543 tested, additional assignment based on STR signature only)

Shared off-modal values: DYS442=11, DYS520=21

The only STR value shared across all samples is DYS442=11 and both the north-east and south-west groups likely share an ancestor with just DYS442=11 and L2 modal values for all other STRs. L2 derived lineages dominate in Ladin speaking populations (91.8% of overall U152) as per Coia et al (2013), and of further interest is that L2+ DYS385a >= 12 makes up a very large percentage of all males in the following populations:

25.5% Fassa Valley 20.5% Badia Valley 19.5% Fiemme Valley

The high frequency in north-east Italy pushes the idea of a “Raetian” specific cluster to the forefront. The Raetians would have developed during the Luco-Meluno (Laugen-Melaun) Culture (1350/1250 BC), which was an Urnfield Culture that stretched from NE Switzerland to NE Italy. The culture does not follow the northern Alps during the Hallstatt period and instead comes under Etruscan influence during the 8th century BC. During the 6th century BC, the focus once again shifts north towards the Inn Valley with the formation of the Fritzens-Sanzeno Culture, which lasts until the conquering of Raetia by Augustus in the 1st century BC. Here are distribution maps of the Luco-Meluno and Fritzens-Sanzeno Cultures: LM_and_FS_MapsFGC10543 is rare in Sardinia (1 of 1200 males), strongly suggesting an in-situ origin and expansion within the Italian peninsula. The lack of FGC10543 near Florence, Tuscany (0 of 57) may also indicate that later movements (Umbrians? Etruscans? Celts?) may have had a hand in driving a wedge between the two FGC10543 groups and reducing an already smaller L2 subclade compared to its more numerous Z49 and Z367 cousins. Coupled with derived tests for samples N65523 and 230724 from the Ventian Prealps has given rise to another possibility. It is extremely likely that the sample closest to Montagnana, the predecessor of the Iron Age site of Este, and indeed, the first millennium B.C. Protovenetic Este culture is FGC10543, but with the modal R1b value of DYS385a=11.

Linguist Giacomo Devoto classified ancient Venetic as an Italic language and placed it as Latin’s closest relative in pre-Roman times. The closeness between the two languages he posited, was the result of a common migration of their ancestors; the Paleo-Venetics and Proto-Latins. These north-east to south-west migrations would have occurred during the second millennium BC and spread through the Protovillanovan Culture which was responsible for spreading the funerary rite of cremation to southern Italy and Sicily. According to linguist Francesco Ribezzo, the area of the Proto-Latins would have extended from Latium to eastern Sicily, where a series of Latino-Ausonic languages like Latin, Faliscan and Sicel, all Q-Italic languages, would later form.[F.Ribezzo, La stratificazione lazial-ausonico de etrusca della Campania mediterranea nella tradizone, nella lingua e nelle iscrizioni preromane edite ed inedite <<RIGI>> 21, 1937, pp. 35-63.] The language in most of the territories between Latium and eastern Sicily would later be replaced by that of the incoming P-Italic Oscans. So three areas of Q-Italic speech – that of the Venetics, Latins and Sicels may well be represented by way of FGC10543 samples. North-East FGC10543 Cluster = Paleo-Venetic (later Venetics) South-West FGC10543 Cluster = Proto-Latin (later Latins, Faliscans, Siculi, gli Enotri, gli Opici e gli Ausoni)

While Devoto’s version of a migration started in Central Europe, there is no reason to suspect that FGC10543 did, as U152’s frequency is much lower there than that of Northern Italy. However, we know that R1b in Western Europe is at least as old as the Bell Beaker Culture. While Bell Beaker finds are well represented in Northern Italy, they are rare in Southern Italy and could not explain U152’s presence there. Given the paucity of L2 and especially FGC10543 in Sardinia, an island hopping scenario for FGC10543 as a part of Bell Beaker is also unlikely. L2 as a high level of overall U152 frequency outside of Italy is likely a result of the Bell Beaker reflux phase that impacted Italy heavily. This later phase may represent the Polada Culture in northern Italy. Polada could also have given rise to the Terramare Culture, which were the first to practice large scale cremation. The collapse of Terramare, could have provided an exodus of many lineages, including FGC10543, and could be responsible for the FGC10543 STR differences we see in the NE and SW groups. The arrival of of P-Italic speaking Umbrians, followed by the Etruscan expansion through the Po River valley may have driven a further wedge between the NE and SW groups. The fact that the Italic languages were confined to the Italian Peninsula, also work in favor of a FGC10543 origin within Italy, and likely only exists outside of Italy in small quantities due to later Roman expansions. FGC10530 and 13487740(C>A) while the Sardinian sample does not.

FGC10543 in England…a Roman marker?

To date, very few confirmed FGC10543 derived samples are known from outside of Italy. They are as follows:

England FGC10516/FGC10536/FGC10543 > FGC10530 > FGC10507/FGC10525/PR5365/18401139(C/T) Group:

228201 John England, b. 1730 and d. 1795 (Big-Y Tested)

186858 Thomas England, 1781 Burke Co. NC-1851 (based on close STR signature and surname match with 228201)

175460 England surname, b. Iron Acton, Gloucestershire, England (based on close STR signature and surname match with 228201)

127336 Chesley Curtis, 1795-1866

Two additional samples from the Bristol, England area also belong to the lowest FGC10507 subclade. Sample 228201 and the two additional anonymous samples from Bristol form a much more recent cluster, as they share 31 SNPs not shared with any of the Italian samples. Furthermore, there may be other samples from the area of south-west England that also encompass this group. They are as follows:

FGC10543 testing target samples with confirmed L2 and M269 testing:

111243 Ralph Lewis b.1649 Treverig, Glamorganshire, Wales

Curiously, the England surname sample and two Bristol samples share the FGC10507 et al subclade with the Rocca sample, but not with the north-east Italian samples. Also with the Rocca sample, the England sample shares DYS449 = 30/31 and DYS464d=18. While the Romans may not have left much of a genetic legacy in Britain [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v519/n7543/full/nature14230.html], it is not outside the realm of possibility that the England sample and the two Britsol samples could have been related to Roman settlement. Certainly only two of 966 Bristol samples being FGC10543 would not tip the genetic scale much. Nearby Gloucester (Glevum or, more formally, Colonia Nervia Glevensium) was a Roman fort in Britain that became a “colonia” of retired legionaries in AD 97. This was the highest rank that could be attained by a Roman city and both the Legio XX Valeria and Legio II Augusta had been stationed there at different times. More data is needed to compare areas of Roman settlement and non-Roman settlement to test the theory, but certainly the distribution of Roman sculptures will attest that the Bristol area is a good place to start: http://www.riha-journal.org/articles/2010/stewart-geographies-of-provincialism Other L2 subclades like Z49, Z367 and DF103 may or may not be associated with Roman expansion. Some minor subclades may follow the path of FGC10543 (DF90?) as traces of Roman expansion. To add to the possibility, a Romano-Briton who grave points to a possible Roman soldier or Gladiator, has tested U152+ L2+ albeit of a different sublade (FGC22501).

FGC10543 in France

To date, the only confirmed FGC10543+ sample found outside of Italy and England is from France: It is as follows:

408671 Pierre Robert, b.1580 d.1637, Breuilaufa, Haute-Vienne, Limousin, France

96038 and 62455 Alexis Lambert, Quebec, Canada (due to close STR matches with 408671)

Of interest is that kit 408671 is the only FGC10543 sample so far that has the P312 modal value of DYS442=12. Even though this may point to a more basal cluster in France, DYS442 could very well have mutated back to its original position as this kit is also FGC10516+ FGC10536+ and FGC10543+.

Dating FGC10543 Subclades

Using the mutation period reported by Poznik [Poznik GD et al. (2013) Sequencing Y chromosomes resolves discrepancy in time to common ancestor of males versus females. Science 341:562-5.] using the rate of 122 years per mutation produces the following FGC10543 subclade dates:

1st Subclade Bell Beaker P312 22157311 Starting date based on oldest European radiocarbon dating of ca 2800 BC, Bell Beaker

2nd Subclade Bell Beaker U152 15333149 Calculated Age of Phylogenetic Block: ca 2678 BC, Early Bell Beaker

3rd Subclade Post Bell Beaker L2 5755550 Calculated Age of Phylogenetic Block: ca 2556 BC, Middle Bell Beaker

4th Subclade Post Bell Beaker FGC10516 7149089 FGC10536 17372204 FGC10543 19096926 Calculated Age of Phylogenetic Block: ca 2190 BC, Late Bell Beaker/Early Polada Culture (2200-1600 BC)

5th Subclade Post Bell Beaker FGC10530 15661086 7722917(CTA/CA)? 7722917 Calculated Age of Phylogenetic Block: ca 1924 BC, Polada Culture (2200-1600 BC)

6th Subclade Post Bell Beaker FGC10525 14307990 FGC10507 3609828 PR5365 15026345 18401139(C/T) 18401139 Calculated Age of Phylogenetic Block: ca 1436 BC, Terramare Culture (1650-1150 BC)

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